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Constitution of 1991
Revision of the Constitution
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Romanian StateArticle 1
(1) Romania is a sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible National State
(2) The form of government of the Romanian State is a Republic.
(3) Romania is a democratic and social State governed by the rule of law, in which human dignity, the citizens' rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism represent supreme values and shall be guaranteed.
SovereigntyArticle 2
(1) National sovereignty resides with the Romanian people, who shall exercise it through its representative bodies and by referendum.
(2) No group or person may exercise sovereignty in one's own name.
TerritoryArticle 3
(1) The territory of Romania is inalienable.
(2) The frontiers of the Country are sanctioned by an organic law, under observance of the principles and other generally recognized regulations of international law.
(3) The territory is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties. Some towns are declared municipalities, according to the provisions of the law.
(4) No foreign populations may be displaced or colonized in the territory of the Romanian State.
Unity of the people and equality among citizensArticle 4
(1) The State foundation is laid on the unity of the Romanian people.
(2) Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens, without any discrimination on account of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, opinion, political adherence, property or social origin.
CitizenshipArticle 5
(1) Romanian citizenship can be acquired, retained or lost as provided for by the organic law.
(2) Romanian citizenship cannot be withdrawn if acquired by birth.
Right to identityArticle 6
(1) The State recognizes and guarantees the right of persons belonging to national minorities, to the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.
(2) The protecting measures taken by the Romanian State for the preservation, development and expression of identity of the persons belonging to national minorities shall conform to the principles of equality and non-discrimination in relation to the other Romanian citizens.
Romanians living abroadArticle 7
The State shall support the strengthening of links with the Romanians living abroad and shall act accordingly for the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity, under observance of the legislation of the State of which they are citizens.
Pluralism and political partiesArticle 8
(1) Pluralism in the Romanian society is a condition and safeguard of Constitutional democracy.
(2) Political parties may be constituted and pursue their activities in accordance with the law. They contribute to the definition and expression of the political will of the citizens, while observing national sovereignty, territorial integrity, the legal order and the principles of democracy.
Trade unionsArticle 9
Trade unions may be constituted and pursue their activities in accordance with their own statutes, as provided for by law. They contribute to the defence of the rights and promotion of the professional, economic and social interests of their members.
International relationsArticle 10
Romania fosters and develops peaceful relations with all the states, and in this context, good neighbourly relations, based on the principles and other generally recognized provisions of international law.
International law and national lawArticle 11
(1) The Romanian State pledges to fulfil as such and in good faith its obligations as deriving from the treaties it is a party to.
(2) Treaties ratified by Parliament, according to the law, are part of national law.
National symbolsArticle 12
(1) The flag of Romania is tricolour; the colours are arranged vertically in the following order from the flag pole: blue, yellow and red.
(2) The National Day of Romania is the 1 of December.
(3) The national anthem of Romania is Awake, Romanians.
(4) The country's coat-of-arms and the seal shall be established by organic laws.
Official languageArticle 13
In Romania, the official language is Romanian.
CapitalArticle 14
The Capital of Romania is the City of Bucharest.

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