Constitution of Romania
Revision of the Constitution
- The Constitution of Romania of 1991 was amended and completed by the Law No. 429/2003 on the revision of the Constitution of Romania, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 758 of 29 October 2003, republished by the Legislative Council on the grounds of article 152 of the Constitution, with the updated denominations and the renumbered texts (Article 152 became, in the republished form, Article 156).
- The Law No. 429/2003 on the revision of the Constitution of Romania was approved by the national referendum of 18-19 October 2003, and came into force on 29 October 2003, the date of the publication in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 758 of 29 October 2003 of the Decision of the Constitutional Court No. 3 of 22 October 2003 for the confirmation of the result of the national referendum of 18-19 October 2003 concerning the Law on the revision of the Constitution of Romania.
- The Constitution of Romania, in its initial form, was adopted in the sitting of the Constituant Assembly of 21 November 1991, was published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 233 of 21 November 1991, and came into force after its approval by the national referendum of 8 December 1991.
- Constitution - 1991
- Major provisions of the Law for the revision of the Constitution
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CONSTITUTION OF ROMANIA
|Romanian State||ARTICLE 1|
(1) Romania is a sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible National State.
(2) The form of government of the Romanian State is a Republic.
(3) Romania is a democratic and social state, governed by the rule of law, in which human dignity, the citizens' rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism represent supreme values, in the spirit of the democratic traditions of the Romanian people and the ideals of the Revolution of December 1989, and shall be guaranteed.
(4) The State shall be organized based on the principle of the separation and balance of powers -legislative, executive, and judicial - within the framework of constitutional democracy.
(5) In Romania, the observance of the Constitution, its supremacy and the laws shall be mandatory.
(1) The national sovereignty shall reside within the Romanian people, that shall exercise it by means of their representative bodies, resulting from free, periodical and fair elections, as well as by referendum.
(2) No group or person may exercise sovereignty in one's own name.
(1) The territory of Romania is inalienable.
(2) The frontiers of the country are sanctioned by an organic law, with the observance of the principles and other generally recognized regulations of international law.
(3) The territory is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties. Some towns are declared municipalities, according to the provisions of the law.
(4) No foreign populations may be displaced or colonized on the territory of the Romanian State.
|Unity of the people and equality among citizens||ARTICLE 4|
(1) The State foundation is laid on the unity of the Romanian people and the solidarity of its citizens.
(2) Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens, without any discrimination on account of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, opinion, political adherence, property or social origin.
(1) Romanian citizenship can be acquired, retained or lost as provided by the organic law.
(2) Romanian citizenship cannot be withdrawn if acquired by birth.
|Right to identity||ARTICLE 6|
(1) The State recognizes and guarantees the right of persons belonging to national minorities to the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.
(2) The protection measures taken by the Romanian State for the preservation, development and expression of identity of the persons belonging to national minorities shall conform to the principles of equality and non-discrimination in relation to the other Romanian citizens.
|Romanians living abroad||ARTICLE 7|
The State shall support the strengthening of links with the Romanians living abroad and shall act accordingly for the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity, with the observance of the legislation of the State whose citizens they are.
|Pluralism and political parties||ARTICLE 8|
(1) Pluralism in the Romanian society is a condition and guarantee of constitutional democracy.
(2) Political parties shall be constituted and shall pursue their activities in accordance with the law. They contribute to the definition and expression of the political will of the citizens, while observing national sovereignty, territorial integrity, the legal order and the principles of democracy.
|Trade unions, employers' associations, and vocational associations||ARTICLE 9|
Trade unions, employers' associations, and vocational associations shall be established and shall carry out their activity according to their statutes, according to the law. They shall contribute to the protection of rights and the promotion of their members' vocational, economic, and social interests.
|International relations||ARTICLE 10|
Romania fosters and develops peaceful relations with all the states, and, in this context, good neighbourly relations, based on the principles and other generally recognized provisions of international law.
|International law and national law||ARTICLE 11|
(1) The Romanian State pledges to fulfil as such and in good faith its obligations as deriving from the treaties it is a party to.
(2) Treaties ratified by Parliament, according to the law, are part of national law.
(3) If a treaty Romania is to become a party to comprises provisions contrary to the Constitution, its ratification shall only take place after the revision of the Constitution.
|National symbols||ARTICLE 12|
(1) The flag of Romania is tricolour; the colours are arranged vertically in the following order from the flag-pole: blue, yellow, red.
(2) The National Day of Romania is the 1st of December.
(3) The national anthem of Romania is "Awake, Romanians".
(4) The country's coat of arms and the State's seal shall be established by organic laws.
|Official language||ARTICLE 13|
In Romania, the official language is Romanian.
The Capital of Romania is the Municipality of Bucharest.