Acts of the Parliament
According to Article 64 under the Constitution, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate pass laws, decisions, and motions, all these being juridical acts. Parliament and each Chamber in part may also adopt exclusively political acts such as declarations, appeals, messages, and others.
Laws are normative acts adopted by Parliament according to the legislative procedure. In the hierarchy of the juridical acts issued by Parliament, laws stand on a position superior to decisions and motions. It is supreme in relation to the other normative acts, which have to be conformable to its dispositions.
Laws emmanate only from Parliament, the successive a proval of draft bills or of legislative proposals by each of the two Chambers being necessary, except the law on the state budget and the law on the budget of the state social insurance, which are debated and adopted in a joint sitting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
According to Article 72 under the Constitution, Parliament may adopt constitutional laws, organic laws, and ordinary laws. Constitutional laws are those on revision of the Constitution. Organic laws are adopted in the domains established by the Constitution, and ordinary laws are adopted for the regulation of other domains of social life. Article 72, paragraph (3) under the Constitution stipulates that organic laws shall regulate:
- the electoral system;
- the organization and operation of political parties;
- the organization and holding of a referendum;
- the organization of the Government and of the Supreme Council of National Defence;
- the states of siege and emergency;
- criminal offences, penalties, and the conditions of their execution;
- the granting of an amnesty or a collective pardon;
- the organizationand operation of theSuperior Council of the Magistracy, the courts, the Public Ministry,and the Court of Audit;
- the status of the civil servants;
- the contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts;
- the general legal status of property and inheritance;
- general rules covering labour relations, trade unions, and social security;
- the general organization of education;
- the general statutory rules of the religious cults;
- the organization of the local administration, of the territory as well as general rules on local autonomy;
- the ways of establishing an exclusive economic zone;
- other domains for which the Constitution provides the enactment of organic laws.
Decisions are adopted by each Chamber separately or in a joint sitting. They may have a normative or an individual character. As compared with laws, decisions have an inferior juridical force.
Motions are individual juridical acts, expressing the Members of Parliament's opinion on or attitude towards a certain question of internal or external policy. By their very nature, motions express an attitude towards the Government, the most important of them being the motion of censure, which may lead to the dismissal of the Government.
According to Article 111 under the Constitution, the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate may adopt a motion by which it should express its position with regard to the questions which made the object of an interpellation.
Motions may be initiated by at least 50 Deputies or by at least a quarter of the number of the Senators. A Member of Parliament cannot sign several motions at the same time and on the same question. Motions must be motivated, and handed in to the president of the Chamber to which the initiators belong, and this must be done in a public sitting. After receiving it, the president of the Chamber immediately notifies the Government of it, brings it to the notice of the Chamber, and disposes it be posted at the seat of the Chamber. The day when the motion will be debated is established by the president of the Chamber and it cannot exceed 6 days after its registration. The president of the Chamber informs the Government in this sense.
After the beginning of the debates on the motion, the Members of Parliament cannot withdraw their adhesion to the motion. Amendments cannot be proposed to a motion. Debates take place according to the procedure for the proceedings of the Chambers' sittings.
After closure of the debates, a vote is taken on the motion by the president of the Chamber, the adoption of the motion being made if a majority vote of the Members of Parliament is achieved.